Factual information on Chad

General Information on Chad: – an Overview:

Chad was until 1960 a French colony, and suffered thirty years of internecine ethnic warfare. In addition there have been invasions by Libya before a modicum of peace returned in 1990.

Multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections were held in 1996 and 1997.

In 1998, further unrest strucj and a new rebellion started in the northern parts of the country, continuing through to 2000.

A peace agreement was implemented in 2002.

Despite movement toward democratic reform, a northern ethnic group retains power.

Geographical information on Chad:

Geographical Position: Central Africa, south of Libya

Map Ref Latitude & Longitude 15 degrees 00 North, 19 degrees 00 East

Total Land & Sea Area Total: 1.3 million square kilometres Sea Area25,000 square kilometres land area: 1,259,000 square kilometres

Land boundaries: Total: 5,970 kilometres Border countries: Cameroon 1,100 kilometres , Central African Republic 1,200 kilometres , Libya 1,050 kilometres , Niger 1,170 kilometres , Nigeria 90 kilometres , Sudan 1,350 kilometres Coastal Length: none

Climatological information on Chad:

Tropical weather in southern regions, dry, arid desert in northern regions. Country terrain: Broad, arid plains in center, desert in northern regions, mountainous areas in northwest, lowlands in south.

Highest & Lowest Elevations: Lowest elevation: Djourab Depression 150 meters highest point: Emi Koussi 3,400 meters

Natural resources: Petroleum (very little actually drilled but exploration is taking place), uranium, fish (Lake Chad) Land use: arable land area: 2.8 percent permanent crops: 0.05 percent other: 97 percent (1998 estimate.) Irrigated land area: 250 square kilometres (1998 estimate.)

Natural hazards: Hot, dusty harmattan winds occur in northern regions; freuquent droughts; locust swarms.

Geographical information on Chad:

The country is landlocked, with no access to the sea; Lake Chad is the largest water expanse in the Sahel Desert People Chad: Population: 9,253,500 (July 2003 estimate.) Age structure: Under 15: 48 percent From 15 to 65: 50 percent Over 65: 3 percent Median age: Total: 15 years male: 14 years female: 16 years (2002) Population growth rate: 3.1 percent (2003 estimate.) Birth rate: 47.1 births/1,000 population (2003 estimate.) Death rate: 16.4 deaths/1,000 population (2003 estimate.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant /1,000 population (2003 estimate.) Infant mortality rate: Total: 96 deaths/1,000 live births female: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 estimate.) male: 100 deaths/1,000 live births Life expectancy at birth: total population: 48.5 years male: 47 years female: 50 years (2003 estimate.) Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (2003 estimate.)

Nationality: Chadian

Ethnic groups: The country’s ethnic groups are very diverse with over two hundred distinct ethnic groups.

In northern and central areas: Arabs, Gorane and other groups most of whom are Muslim; and in the southern areas: Sara Moundang, Moussei, Massa, and others most of whom are Christian in terms of religion or animist.

Religious information on Chad: Islam/Muslim faith 50 percent, Christian 30 percent, animist 10 percent, other 10 percent

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 150 different languages and (local dialects) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over that can read and write French or Arabic total population: 47 percent male: 56 percent female: 39 percent (2003 estimate.)

Government Chad:

Republic of Chad Government type: Republic Capital city: N'Djamena

Independence: August 11th, 1960 from France National holiday: Independence Day, August 11th, 1960 Constitution: March 1996 Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law.

Suffrage: All citizens eligible to vote from the age of 18 years

Executive branch: Head of State: President
Head of government: Prime Minister Cabinet: Council of State, cabinet members picked by President the Prime Minister’s recommendation.

Elections: president voted to serve five-year term;

Economy information on Chad:

Economy based on subsistence agriculture on which survives 80% of the population.

Exploitation of considerable oil reserves commenced recently.

Its landlocked position has hampered growth.

GDP - Gross Domestic Product: - $USD9.300 billion (2002 estimate.) GDP - Gross Domestic Product - growth rate: 7 percent (2002 estimate.) GDP - Gross Domestic Product - per capita: - $USD1,000 (2002 estimate.) GDP - Gross Domestic Product - composition by sector: agriculture: 40 percent industry: 10 percent services: 50 percent (2001 estimate.) Population below poverty line: 80 percent (2001 estimate.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5 percent (2002 estimate.) Labor force - by occupation: Agriculture more than 85 percent (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing) rate of unemployment:

Budget: incomes: $USD200 million spending: $USD220 million, including capital spending of $USD145 million (1998 estimate.)

Industries: Oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials Industrial production growth rate: 5 percent (1995)

Exports: $USD200 million (2002 estimate.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, gum arabic Exports - partners: Portugal 28 percent, Germany 14 percent, US 8 percent, Czech Republic 6.5 percent, France 6 percent, Nigeria 6 percent, Poland 5.5 percent, Spain 5 percent, Morocco 4 percent (2002) Imports: $USD575 million (2002 estimate.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles Imports - partners: France 31 percent, US 31 percent, Germany 5 percent, Nigeria 4 percent (2002) Debt - external: $USD1 billion (2000 estimate.)

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); Currency code: XAF

Communications in Chad:

Telephones: 9,700 (1999) Television stations: 1 (2002) Internet country code: .td

Travel to Chad:

Railroad networks: 0 kilometres Roading System: Total: 33,500 kilometres Pipelines: oil 200 kilometres (2003) Airports: 50 (2002)

Military system in Chad :

Military branches: Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Northomadic Guard (GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police Military spending: $USD40.74 million (Fiscal Year 02)

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Information sourced and adapted from the CIA Factbook

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