Factual information on Chad
General Information on Chad: – an Overview:
Chad was until 1960 a French colony, and suffered thirty years of internecine ethnic warfare. In addition there have been invasions by Libya before a modicum of peace returned in 1990.
Multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections were held in 1996 and 1997.
In 1998, further unrest strucj and a new rebellion started in the northern parts of the country, continuing through to 2000.
A peace agreement was implemented in 2002.
Despite movement toward democratic reform, a northern ethnic group retains power.
Geographical information on Chad:
Central Africa, south of Libya
Map Ref Latitude & Longitude
15 degrees 00 North, 19 degrees 00 East
Total Land & Sea Area
Total: 1.3 million square kilometres
Sea Area25,000 square kilometres
land area: 1,259,000 square kilometres
Total: 5,970 kilometres
Border countries: Cameroon 1,100 kilometres , Central African Republic 1,200 kilometres , Libya 1,050 kilometres , Niger 1,170 kilometres , Nigeria 90 kilometres , Sudan 1,350 kilometres
Climatological information on Chad:
Tropical weather in southern regions, dry, arid desert in northern regions.
Broad, arid plains in center, desert in northern regions, mountainous areas in northwest, lowlands in south.
Highest & Lowest Elevations:
Lowest elevation: Djourab Depression 150 meters
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,400 meters
Petroleum (very little actually drilled but exploration is taking place), uranium, fish (Lake Chad)
Land use: arable land area: 2.8 percent
permanent crops: 0.05 percent
other: 97 percent (1998 estimate.)
Irrigated land area:
250 square kilometres (1998 estimate.)
Hot, dusty harmattan winds occur in northern regions; freuquent droughts; locust swarms.
Geographical information on Chad:
The country is landlocked, with no access to the sea; Lake Chad is the largest water expanse in the Sahel Desert
9,253,500 (July 2003 estimate.)
Under 15: 48 percent
From 15 to 65: 50 percent
Median age: Total:
male: 14 years
female: 16 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
3.1 percent (2003 estimate.)
47.1 births/1,000 population (2003 estimate.)
16.4 deaths/1,000 population (2003 estimate.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant /1,000 population (2003 estimate.)
Infant mortality rate:
96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 86 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 estimate.)
male: 100 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
male: 47 years
female: 50 years (2003 estimate.)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (2003 estimate.)
The country’s ethnic groups are very diverse with over two hundred distinct ethnic groups.
In northern and central areas: Arabs, Gorane and other groups most of whom are Muslim; and in the southern areas: Sara Moundang, Moussei, Massa, and others most of whom are Christian in terms of religion or animist.
Religious information on Chad:
Islam/Muslim faith 50 percent, Christian 30 percent, animist 10 percent, other 10 percent
French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 150 different languages and (local dialects)
definition: age 15 and over that can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 47 percent
male: 56 percent
female: 39 percent (2003 estimate.)
Republic of Chad Government type:
Republic Capital city:
August 11th, 1960 from France
Independence Day, August 11th, 1960
Constitution: March 1996
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law.
Suffrage: All citizens eligible to vote from the age of 18 years
Head of State: President
Head of government: Prime Minister
Cabinet: Council of State, cabinet members picked by President the Prime Minister’s recommendation.
Elections: president voted to serve five-year term;
Economy information on Chad:
Economy based on subsistence agriculture on which survives 80% of the population.
Exploitation of considerable oil reserves commenced recently.
Its landlocked position has hampered growth.
GDP - Gross Domestic Product: - $USD9.300 billion (2002 estimate.)
GDP - Gross Domestic Product - growth rate: 7 percent (2002 estimate.)
GDP - Gross Domestic Product - per capita: - $USD1,000 (2002 estimate.)
GDP - Gross Domestic Product - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40 percent
industry: 10 percent
services: 50 percent (2001 estimate.)
Population below poverty line:
80 percent (2001 estimate.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5 percent (2002 estimate.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Agriculture more than 85 percent (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
rate of unemployment:
incomes: $USD200 million
spending: $USD220 million, including capital spending of $USD145 million (1998 estimate.)
Oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
5 percent (1995)
Exports: $USD200 million (2002 estimate.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, gum arabic
Exports - partners: Portugal 28 percent, Germany 14 percent, US 8 percent, Czech Republic 6.5 percent, France 6 percent, Nigeria 6 percent, Poland 5.5 percent, Spain 5 percent, Morocco 4 percent (2002)
Imports: $USD575 million (2002 estimate.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
France 31 percent, US 31 percent, Germany 5 percent, Nigeria 4 percent (2002)
Debt - external: $USD1 billion (2000 estimate.)
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); Currency code:
Communications in Chad:
Internet country code:
Travel to Chad:
oil 200 kilometres (2003)
Military system in Chad :
Armed Forces (including National Army, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), Rapid Intervention Force, National and Northomadic Guard (GNNT), Presidential Security Guard, Police
$USD40.74 million (Fiscal Year 02)
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Information sourced and adapted from the CIA Factbook
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