Figures and information on Mali
General Information on Mali & Quick Overview
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation.
When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali.
Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held.
After his reelection in 1997, President Alpha KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption.
In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE.
Geographical Statistics & Information on Mali
Western Africa, located to the south-west of neighbouring Algeria
Map Ref Latitude & Longitude
16 degrees 00 North, 5 degrees 00 West
Total Land & Sea Area
1.2 million square kilometres Sea Area 30,000 square kilometres land area: 1.2 million square kilometres Land boundaries: Total: 7,250 kilometres border countries: Algeria 1,400 kilometres, Burkina Faso 1,000 kilometres, Guinea 850 kilometres, Cote d'Ivoire 500 kilometres, Mauritania 2,200 kilometres, Niger 800 kilometres, Senegal 420 kilometres Coastal Length:
0 kilometres (landlocked)
Climatological Conditions & information on Mali
The climate varies from a subtropical climate to hot, arid; hot and dry from the month of February to month of June; and the climate is rainy, wet, humid, and warm to mild from the month of June to the month of November; cool and dry from the month of November to the month of February.
Terrain information on Mali
mostly flat to rolling northern sandy plain, savannah –land in southern areas of Mali, rugged hills in Mali’s northeast regions.
Highest & Lowest Elevations: Lowest elevation: Senegal River 20 metres .
Highest elevation: Hombori Tondo 1,150 metres
Country’s natural resources:
gold deposits, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydroelectric power note: bauxite deposits, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use ploughable land area:
4 percent permanent crops:
0.05 percent other: 96.2 percent (1998 estimate) Irrigated land area:
1,400 square kilometres (1998 estimate)
Hazardous Natural phenomena:
Hot, dry and dust-laden harmattan haze and harmattan wind is common during the hot, dry season; frequent drought and water shortages; occasionally subject to flooding of the Niger River.
Geographical Point of Interest
Mali is landlocked country; divided into three natural geographic zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese zone; the central, hot, dry semi-arid Sahelian; and the northern, dry, hot, arid Saharan desert regions.
People - Information on Mali
11,626,000 (July 2003 estimate)
Age structure: under 15 years: 46 percent 15 to 64 years: 50 percent Over 65: 4 percent
Median age of population:
Total: 16 years male: 15 years female: 17 years (2002)
Population growth rate: 3 percent (2003 estimate) Birth rate: 48 births per thousand population (2003 estimate) mortality rate:
19 deaths per thousand population (2003 estimate) Net rate of migration:
-0.35 migrant(s) per thousand population (2003 estimate) Infant mortality rate: Total: 119 deaths per thousand live births female: 113 deaths per thousand live births (2003 estimate) male: 125 deaths per thousand live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45 years male: 44 years female: 46 years (2003 estimate) Total fertility rate:
7 children born/woman (2003 estimate)
Mande 55 percent (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 10 percent, Voltaic 10 percent, Songhai 10 percent, Tuareg and Moor 10 percent, other 5 percent
Religious information on Mali
Muslim/Islamic faith 85 percent, indigenous religious beliefs 13 percent, Christian 2 percent
Languages & Linguistic Groupings
French (official), Bambara 80 percent, numerous indigenous African languages .
definition: People over the age of 15 years that are literate (can read & write): total population: 46 percent male: 53 percent . female: 39 percent (2003 estimate)
Government information on Mali Country name:
Republic of Mali Government type:
Republic Capital city:
Independence: September 22nd, 1960 from Republic of France National holiday: Independence Day: 22 September
Legal system: based on French Civil Code and traditional customary law;
Electoral & Voting System
Universal vote from the age of 18.
Head of State:
President Chief of Government:
Council of Ministers appointed by PM.
Legislative branch: Unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale voted for 5-year terms.
Economy information on Mali
Mali is one of the world’s poorest countries.
Sixty-five percent of Mali’s land area is in desert or semi-desert and there are wide income disparities. Most of the population lives in poverty.
Economic activity is restricted to the area bordering the Niger River, as a result of the irrigation it provides.
Aournd ten percent of the Malian population are nomads, while eighty percent of the labour force is involved in primary industry subsisitence farming or fishing.
Industrial development has been confined in the main to the processing of farm commodities.
Mali depends very much on foreign aid and is vulnerable to market fluctuations in prices for its main export - cotton, and its other main export, gold.
Mali is implementing an IMF-recommended structural adjustment programme.
It is attempting to grow, diversify the economy also to attract foreign investment, with some recent success.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
$USD9.800 billion (2002 estimate) Gross Domestic Product - actual growth rate:
4 percent (2002 estimate) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - per head of population:
$USD800 (2002 estimate) Gross Domestic Product - composition by sector: agriculture:
40 percent industry:
20 percent services:
40 percent (2001 estimate)
Population below poverty line: 65 percent
Rate of inflation: 4.5 percent (2002 estimate) Labour force: 4 million (2001 estimate) Labour force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 85 percent (2001 estimate) Rate of unemployment: 14 percent urban areas; 5 percent rural areas (2001 estimate)
$USD765 million spending :
$USD830 million, (2002 estimate) Industries:
food and primary products processing; construction and building; phosphate mining and gold mining
Agriculture - products: cotton, grains, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock
$USD700 million Exports - commodities:
cotton, gold, livestock & meats
Exports - partners:
Thailand 14 percent, Italy 10 percent, India 8 percent, Brazil 6 percent, Germany 5 percent, Spain 5 percent, Portugal 4 percent, Taiwan 4 percent (2002)
$USD625 million Imports - commodities:
petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles Imports -most important trading partners:
Cote d'Ivoire 17 percent, France 13 percent, Senegal 6 percent, Germany 4 percent (2002)
$USD3 billion (2000) Economic aid - recipient:$USD597 million (2001) National Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF);
Currency Abbreviation: XOF
Communications information on Mali Telephones landlines:
Radio broadcast stations: Amplitude Modulation 2, Frequency Modulation 25, shortwave 2 Television broadcast stations: 2 (2001) Internet country code: .ml
Transportation in & travel information on Mali Railroad networks: Total:
730 kilometres Roading System: Total:
15,000 kilometres Airports & airfields:
Military system of Mali Military branches:
Mali Army, Air Force, Mali Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard,Mali National Police
Military spending :
- $USD420 million (Fiscal Year02) Military spending : percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP):
20 percent (Fiscal Year02)
International Issues Mali
Disputes - international: Mali-based insurgents attack southern Algerian towns and are basis of disputes with Algeria.
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