General figures stats and information on Rwanda

General Information on Rwanda & Quick Overview

Despite huge levels of international aid and assistance, recent political reforms and recent democratic elections Rwanda is experiencing great difficulty in moving from a primary producing nation, and still recovered from internecine civil war and bloodshed of the 1990’s.

Civil war and genocide in 1994 saw the deaths of a reported 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus.

The majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the Tutsi king who ruled over Rwanda in 1959, 3 years before Rwanda’s independence from colonial master, Belgium.

Thousands of Tutsis were killed then and in following years. The bloodshed saw over 150,000 forced in to exile in neighboring nations. These exiles and their children later formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front, and launched a civil war in 1990.

The Tutsi rebels eventually defeated the Hutu regime and the pogrom ended in July 1994. As a result of the change in power, from Hutu dominance back to Tutsi dominance, about two million Hutus fled to become refugees in the neighboring countries of Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, and Democratic Republic of Congo formerly Zaire.

In recent years most of the refugees have gone back to their homes in Rwanda, and the painful process of reconciliation has been on-going.

Massive population upheavals, continuing attempts at insurrection by extremist elements, and Rwanda’s participation in two wars in recent years in their neighbour DROC-Zaire is making the process of rebuilding a shattered, blood-scarred nation with poor infrastructure very difficult.

Geographical statistics & Information on Rwanda

Geographical Position: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo Map Ref Latitude & Longitude 3 degrees 00 S, 20 degrees 00 East Total Land & Sea Area: Total26,400 square kilometres Sea Area 1,400 square kilometres land area 25,000 square kilometres Land boundaries Total900 kilometres Border countries Burundi 300 kilometres, Democratic Republic of the Congo 200 kilometres, Tanzania 200 kilometres, Uganda 170 kilometres Coastal Length 0 kilometres (landlocked)

Climatological Conditions & information on Rwanda

The climate of Rwanda is a temperate one and they have two rainy seasons each year. These run from the month of February to the month of April, and the second rainy season runs from the month of November to the month of January; the climate is mild in mountainous areas with bouts of frost and falls of snow at times.

Terrain Features

Mostly grassy hills and uplands; the general relief of the country is mountainous with altitude increasing from east to west. Highest & Lowest Elevations: Lowest elevationRusizi River 900 metres Highest elevation Volcan Karisimbi 4,520 metres Country’s natural resources gold deposits, cassiterite – which is tin ore, wolframite which is tungsten ore, methane gas reserves, hydroelectric power, fertile arable land

Land use

Ploughable land area 32. percent permanent crops 10 percent other: 57 percent (1998 estimate) Irrigated land area 45 square kilometres (1998 estimate) Hazardous Natural phenomena Periodically there are droughts and water shortages in some areas; the Virunga mountains in the northwest regions along the border of Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) still are active.

Geographical Point of Interest

A landlocked country the bulk of Rwanda is savanna grassland and most of the population lives a rurally based subsistence existence.

People-Information on Rwanda

Population 7,800,000

Age structure under 15 years: 42 percent 15 to 64 years55 percent Over 653 percent Median age of population Total18 years male: 17. years female: 19 years (2002) Population growth rate 1.8 percent (2003 estimate) Birth rate 40 births per thousand population (2003 estimate) mortality rate 22 deaths per thousand population (2003 estimate) Net rate of migration 0 migrant(s) per thousand population (2003 estimate) Infant mortality rate Total102 deaths per thousand live births female: 97 deaths per thousand live births (2003 estimate) male: 107 deaths per thousand live births Life expectancy at birth total population: 39. years male: 38 years female: 40 years (2003 estimate) Total fertility rate 6 children born/woman (2003 estimate)



Ethnic groups

Hutu 85 percent, Tutsi 13 percent, Twa 2 percent

Religious information on Rwanda

Roman Catholic 56 percent, Protestant 25 percent, Adventist 11 percent, Muslim/Islamic faith 5 percent. (2001)

Languages & Linguistic Groupings

Kinyarwanda - a universal Bantu language, French, English, Kiswahili, Swahili Literacy definition People over the age of 15 years that are literate (can read & write): female: 64 percent (2003 estimate) male: 76 percent total population: 70 percent People - note Rwanda is Africa’s most densely populated country.

Government information on Rwanda

Country name Rwandese Republic

Government type Republic Capital city Kigali

Independence July 1st 1962 from Belgium National holiday Independence Day 1 July Constitution 1995 Legal system Based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law;

Electoral & Voting System

Universal vote from the age of 18 Executive branch Head of StatePresident
Chief of Government:Prime Minister
Cabinet:President appoints a Council of Ministers.

Legislative branch Unicameral Assemblee Nationale

Economy information on Rwanda

Ninety percent of Rwanda’s population is involved in primary industry, subsistence farming and small scale agriculture.

Rwanda is Africa’s most densely populated country but is landlocked and is limited in terms of its natural resources. There is little industry. Efforts to diversify agriculture into non-traditional areas such as flower growing etc have been hamstrung by the country’s poor infrastructure and difficult transportation conditions.

The major export earners are are coffee and tea, so the economy is subject to the swings in the prices of those markets.

The genocide of 1994 destroyed the country’s already poorly developed infrastructure and its weak economic base, exhausted the national wealth of the population, slashed their ability to draw in the crucially needed private and foreign investment required to rebuild the shattered country.

Poverty has increased, but the country has made some steady progress towards re-establishing the economic infrastructure.

Despite Rwanda having good amounts of fertile and potentially fertile arable land, the amount of food produced struggles to keep up with the growth of the population and food must be imported.

Rwanda was approved significant debt relief under the IMF-World Bank’s Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) scheme in 2000.

However Rwanda continues to spend large amounts on its military which causes a degree of tension between international aid donors and banking institutions.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

$USD9 billion (2002 estimate) Gross Domestic Product - actual growth rate 10 percent (2002 estimate) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - per head of population: $USD1,000 (2002 estimate) Gross Domestic Product - composition by sector agriculture 40 percent industry23 percent services37 percent (2002 estimate) Population below poverty line 50 percent (2001 estimate)

Rate of inflation 5 percent (2002 estimate) Labour force 4 million (2000) Labour force - by occupation agriculture 85 percent

Budget information on Rwanda

Incomes $USD199 million spending $USD450 million. Industries cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes Industrial production growth rate 5 percent (2001 estimate)

Agriculture - products Coffee, tea, insecticides, bananas, fruits, vegetables, beans, sorghum, tubers and root crops, livestock

Exports information on Rwanda

$USD70 million Exports - commodities Coffee, tea, leather, tin ore Exports - partners Indonesia 31 percent, Germany 14 percent, Hong Kong 10 percent, South Africa 5 percent (2002)


$USD250 million Imports - commodities foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material Imports -most important trading partners Kenya 22 percent, Germany 8 percent, Belgium 8 percent, Israel 4 percent (2002)

Foreign Indebtedness

$USD1 billion (2000 estimate) National Currency Rwandan franc (RWF) Currency Abbreviation RWF

Communications information on Rwanda

Telephones landlines50,000 Radio broadcast stations Amplitude Modulation 1, Frequency Modulation , shortwave 2 (2002) Television broadcast stations NA Internet country code .rw

Transportation in & travel information on Rwanda

Railroad networks 0 kilometres Roading System Total10,000 kilometres Airports & airfields 10 (2002)

Military information on Rwanda

Military branches Rwanda Army, Rwanda Air Force, Gendarmerie Military spending - $USD59 million (Fiscal Year02) Military spending : percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 5 percent (Fiscal Year02)

International Issues Disputes - international Inter-racial fighting continues in some areas.

Conflicts still exist over border areas of Burundi, DROC - Democratic Republic of the Congo formerly Zaire, and Uganda. UN peacekeeping efforts are on-going.

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Information on Rwanda
Source: All info sourced and adapted from CIA Factbook
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